What does A.I. really mean?

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The definition that you learned for Artificial Intelligence was:

An area of computer science that deals with giving machines the ability to seem like they have human intelligence

So far, so good. Please note that we are not even thinking about the machines actually having human intelligence, we just want it to seem as though they do.

It's actually really, really difficult to achieve this

Strangely enough, it's much easier to program a computer with the knowledge of an expert on a given topic, than it is to give a computer enough general knowledge to sound human. This area of A.I. is called "Expert Systems". Some expert systems disgnose diseases for doctors, or read X-rays for them. Other schedule routes for delivery vehicles, handle routine insurance claims, or train air traffic controllers. Someone who is an expert in the given area works with a programmer to create this computer application.

The experts provide facts, which are stored in such a way that they are connected and can be questioned.

A very simple explanation of an insurance-related expert system is shown in this video, posted to youtube by ThugLife89xx.

This is a rather more facetious description, posted by jannepykk0.

Remember that we talked about If-Then statements when we were looking at the programs to test the robot sensors? If there was something in front of the robot, Then it would play a high note.